Refraction

Refraction is the bending of light rays when passing through a surface between one transparent material and another. It is described by Snell’s Law:

where θ1 is the angle between the ray and the surface normal in the first medium, θ2 is the angle between the ray and the surface normal in the second medium, and n1 and n2 are the indices of refraction, n = 1 in a vacuum and n > 1 in a transparent substance.

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